Nuclear Magnetic bonds, hyperstrong materials, atomic fuels

Seeker: This Superheavy Atom Factory Is Pushing the Limits of the Periodic Table at

The electron shells only contain a tiny part of the total energy, but chemistry focused on the outermost and weakest energies. More fundamental is the binding of protons and protons, protons and neutrons, neutrons and neutrons – which governs the size of isotopes – natural and synthesized. PP PN and NN binding can be approximated from the magnetic dipole energy (and forces). At close distances (picometers) the 1/r^3 magnetic dipole energy equals or exceeds the Coulomb energy. If you remember Lewis diagrams and a host of simple models for screening and exploring models and reactions, they do not have to be exact. Just get you started in right areas. All the fusion reactions are magnetic dipole, including those momentary magnetic states. If you are willing to work at microseconds and nanoseconds and faster, there are many potential reactions where you can start with a magnetic dipole approximation, then do the full non-linear Schrodinger if your computer is big enough. Or ask a friend.

The order of strength (for a fixed distance) of the magnetic bond is PP, NP, NN. Natural conditions for PP binding can be found in neutron stars. But carefully controlled collisions can test PP magnetic bonds. Since now neutrons can be accelerated with dynamic magnetic gradients with lasers and accelerators, those too. If you ignore the periodic table (outer electron chemistry) and focus on the KeV and MeV and tens of MeV reactions, try the magnetic bonding as a first approximation to the multipole states and soliton states. A good starting point near to an exact solution – when the search space of possible reactions and pathways is large — is golden. There should be solutions where all protons and all neutrons are stable too. Long chains of magnetic dipoles should be stable, and they can fold and bind pretty much the way atoms do – in rings, in heterocycles, in clusters, in sheets.

The Schrodinger equation is just one of the 3D wave equations. Non-linearity can come from several models. So that means all combinations of neutrons and protons ought to be checked, and a useful screen is magnetic and electric dipole, quadrupole and any pole possibilities. Since these do not all have to be permanently stable, only long enough to react in precise ways, then checking all of them is worth doing. Some are harder to create and maintain. And the purpose is “atomic fuels” where short lived moles of material are made to store energy at KeV and MeV bond energies. And hyper strong materials where the bonds are KeV (I do not know how to make the MeV bond ones yet at macroscopic sizes). SpaceX Starship 100 meter fuel tanks could be 1 meter, even with rather weak 200 eV bonding. But there are many things we might try, just because they are fun and elegant. Which reminds me that particles and anti-particles can bind magnetically – if you allow for rotation and vibrational energy states as well. Electrons can bond magnetically, protons and electrons can bond at KeV and MeV energies. At least take a look. I think you will find it pleasant and interesting.

Richard Collins, The Internet Foundation

Richard K Collins

About: Richard K Collins

Director, The Internet Foundation Studying formation and optimized collaboration of global communities. Applying the Internet to solve global problems and build sustainable communities. Internet policies, standards and best practices.

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