Lifting and catching things for space: Gravitational Engineering Problems. Webers

Hi, David.

I have two grandchildren now, and the younger one is 3. So a while since we last connected. Your many textbooks are interesting. I took a quick glance at the Electrical Technology Program at Lone Star College. Where are you in your studies?  Near the end, or just getting started? Are you at North Harris, Tomball or Creekside Center LSC?

The first thing that came to mind when I looked at your magnetic starters example was a problem I was looking at last night and in recent months – to replace the first stage of the SpaceX StarShip, the Booster stage, with electromagnetic field power and energy transmission systems. The second thing was that magnetic inductors store energy in magnetic field energy density form, but so do capacitors in electric field energy density form. Then RLC (resistance inductance capacitance) circuits allow you to model them with equations to decide what components would do the job. To lift the second stage, “StarShip” to mission altitude and velocity (150 km, 6700 meters/second).

Since you are talking about imaging, we must have talked about using arrays of sensitive detectors (electric, magnetic, acoustic, “quantum”, electromagnetic, and others names) to image things like the atmosphere, oceans, flows and changes inside the earth, looking inside the moon sun and planets. That sort of thing.  In the last few years I have made some progress with that. But it is so much, you will have to tell me the kinds of problems or opportunities you want to explore.

I have been trying to use STM32, ESP32, Raspberry Pi 3,4,5,nano and pico, and other small computers for controlling things and for sensing. So controlling sensors and power. The power can be for motors, field generators, communications, or to move larger power. But many of the problems require powerful multicore desktop computers and even more powerful computers of the sort the AI groups use or want to use

For your shaded pole example, magnetic fields fill every voxel (volume elements) of the universe.

For a magnetic field, B,  in Tesla (Weber/Meter^2) the energy density in (Joules/meter^3) is B^2/(2*mu0) where mu0 is the vacuum magnetic permeability with CODATA value 1.25663706212E-6 Newtons/Ampere.  In a vacuum (or air) at the surface of the earth. the gravitational energy density, in Joules/Meter^3 is g^2/(8*pi*G) where G is the gravitational constant with CODATA value, 6.6743E-11 Hertz^2/(Kilogram/Meter^3).  For g = 9.8 meter/second^2, the energy density is 57.251 GigaJoules/Meter^3. Setting the magnetic energy density equal to the gravitational energy density, gives a relation between magnetic and gravitational fields. g^/(8*pi*G) = B^2/(2*muo), so B = sqrt(2*muo/8*pi*G)*g = 38.7077*g.  For g = 9.8 meters/second^2, that is 38.7077 *9.8= 379.33546 Tesla.

(The similarity to the CoData “Characteristic Impedance of Vacuum” Z0 =376.730313668 Ohms is not completely coincidental. The 9.8 meters/second^2 is arbitrary, a rough value for the gravitational field at the surface of the earth. 376.730313668/38.7076796657 => 9.73272 Meters/Second^2 could be used instead. I worked out how that can fit, but I just use visualizations to remember things that AIs with perfect permanent memory can do instead. )

A 1.0 Tesla field (about what you get at the surface of a strong magnet these days,the energy density is (B^2)/(3*muo) = (1 Tesla)^2/(2*1.25663706212E-6) = 387,887.358 (Joules/meter^3). For a magnetic field of 10 Tesla, that would be 39.79 MegaJoules/meter^3 or 39.79 MegaWatt*Seconds for each cubic meter of field.  Going to higher field strengths makes the devices smaller and lighter.  For lifting Starship vehicle fully fueled and with 150 metric tons of payload to mission altitude and velocity (takes a few minutes) I found that takes about 32 two GigaWatt generators with a few backups.  The lowest cost so far is where the vehicle uses local fields and the surface generators transmit the energy to go all the way to orbit.  Then you do not need 1200 metric tons of fuel on the Starship. You send it all the way to second stage with transmitted power.

I do not have this in a separate computer model for this that I can share on the Internet. The last year I have been working every day with AIs and AI companies to get them to hurry so they can use all science technology engineering mathematics computing and quantitative skills without error and for sharing globally with all 8 billion humans.  July 2023 was the 25th anniversary of the Internet Foundation. so most of the best practices policies and methods for the Internet I am recommending, I have been working with agencies, corporations and organizations to get those into common use. —  Look at these equations and try to get familiar with them for voltages in MegaVolts and GigaVolts, currents in MegaAmperes and GigaAmperes, charges in MegaCoulombs and GigaCoulombs, capacitance in MegaFarads and GigaFarads, frequencies in Hertz, KiloHertz, MegaHertz, GigaHertz, TeraHertz, PetaHertz and ExaHertz.  I write things out like this so the AIs are able to read and remember them without error.  When people abbreviate, the AIs cannot read it.  You do not want your computers to make mistakes when moving this much energy around at these power levels. So open and clear communication is more important than saving a few keystrokes. I am trying to get the AI groups to have all AIs remember everything in every conversation they have with their human partners.  The magnetic flux in Webers is the Inductance in Henries times the Current in Amperes.  Webers = Hernries*Amperes. ( φ = L*I )   If you divide through by the area:

Tesla = Weber/Meter^2 = Henry * (Amperes/Meter^2)

Making and operating the ground station field generators means creating and storing enough energy to send the second stage to orbital velocity and height. All that chemical energy and mass of fuel does NOT have to be lifted.  Just the ship itself and its cargo and humans.

I have found ways to store and retrieve energy in atomic (inner core electrons) and nuclear (electrons bound into neutrons inside the nucleus).  I call those “atomic fuels”. But as systems come online, there are many ways to dynamically create energies and much more efficient ways to generate energy. Modular nuclear generators of 2 to 20 GigaWatt can be used and not have to use electricity from fossil fuels. But it depends on the costs. If methane (natural gas) is cheap, and you have time to recharge a field generator in a storage ring, then that might be most cost effective.

If you are more interested in communication or space operations, I can give you some examples.  Because the quantum entanglement groups are experimenting with communication faster than the speed of light (up to several billion times) that requires computers, models, field visualization, design and testing of real systems.  It takes about 19.5 minutes now for a one way signal from Earth orbit to Mars. But a standing wave field can send the same amount of information is less than a second. Because the field is already established, it is the channel speed, not a one way transmission.  With AIs getting faster and more permanent memories, many systems you do not need real time since it can mostly be simulated as precisely or better than the real thing.

If you want to schedule time for Google meet of Zoom, we can talk face to face and look at the internet and computer to talk about things.  I make screen recording videos often and post them in private areas on my Google drive.  If you go to Twitter, it has links to some places I stored things on the Internet –

Richard Collins, The Internet Foundation

I was looking at your picture and suggest you use dot density maps.  If you are looking at the boundary of the core mantle inside the earth, you can make the whole mantle down to the core mostly transparent and then the core more solid, but translucent. If you zoom in to where your whole 3D view is a 100 meter on a side cube and the resolution is 10 centimeters, there are a billion voxels in the 3D display. It should be possible to image the chemical composition of things inside the earth, to measure the temperature and pressure. But I have not finished that, or got it to the point it is simple yet.

Take a look at the dot density 3D example of electron density for the 5p orbital (you can use your mouse to change the view on the right hand 3d picture). On the left pick the orbital and then at the top click “Dots!” The 7S orbital has many spherical layers. But real atomic orbitals are as rich and varied as real objects, real magnets, real magnetic fields. So there are many more stable patterns than the few at the Orbitron site. And many that are dynamically stable and useful.  The blur of motions inside the atomic nucleus and its swarms of electron density can be “frozen” into static solid form if you set the animation or sampling rate to 10^21 frames per second. That is possible in simulation. Actually are only up to 10^18 times per second now.

The mathematical gradient of the magnetic energy density gives a force field.  Magnetic energy density also has units of pressure, Pascal = Newtons/Meter^2. And the gradient of a pressure is a force, a magnetic pressure gradient force.
Lots of useful ways to make forces to fit every situation.


I have not heard from you.  I wrote things that are on my mind. But other than some books, diagrams and an image, you did not say what you want.

I am working on sorting out the electromagnetic spectrum to find where gravitation fits in.  Gravity at the surface of the earth has a peak in the extreme ultraviolet but extends far into and beyond the soft x-ray region, and down through ultraviolet, visible, near, mid and infraRed, all the way down to nanoHertz and beyond. For most all those, the common denominator is the energy of the bonds involved – in electron volts, Kelvin and other units.

The effects we associate most with gravity are those where there are many emitters with multipoles. And where the detection used time of flight and arrays of detectors. It is not hard do calculate, but a bit hard to measure.  I worked for 45 years thinking gravity and electromagnetism were different things. With gravity having some unique special abilities.  That is still true, but gravity effects are many, and they depend on a range of things that are labeled electromagnetic. or ignored, or cast into different units and models.

Now I consider gravity just part of the electromagnetic spectrum, but I have extended the electromagnetic methods for sources and detectors where there are metamaterials, mixtures, natural materials, planetary and solar bodies, earthquakes, tsunamis, wind, rain, atmospheric current and storms, ocean waves and current, cars and people, and many things that can now be modeled and simulated. Transmitting multipole fields is as easy as transmitting and receiving neutrinos, which is getting more routine every day

In the LWIR “thermal” part of the spectrum when detecting 2 to 20 micron electromagnetic waves, the energy is given in Kelvin. There is a simple k*T = h*frequency = h*c/Wavelength relation. And a more complicated way for black body and other sources.  Room temperatures, human and animal temperatures have micron sized waves with energies where 1 Kelvin = 20,836,617,636.1327 Hertz 20.836,617,636,132,7 GigaHertz. So the 5G and higher cell phone frequencies and the TeraHertz imaging are using temperature related waves. The energy of these waves is small, 1 Kelvin = 86.1732814974493 microElectronVolts. And in communication the transmission bits are now in milliVolts but that is being extended to microVolts and nanoVolts, picoVolts and femtoVolts. Converting to SI units (Standard Internet) makes most of it fairly easy to remember and apply.  I am trying to teach the AIs how to do it, but humans are likely going to have to remember some of it.

At the [copy] buttons give the full decimals.

What do you want to do?  Something must have sparked you writing to me. Do you need help with magnetic circuits?  I have worked on many hundreds of things since we last connected.  So I will have to ask you what interests you.  I do need some help with getting data from sensors for thermal imaging and cameras, microphones, photodetectors and thermometers.  But if you want to do something else, just say so.Richard

I think I have a way to visualize and calculate most uses of Webers.  Webers/Meter^3 depends on the density of magnetic field gradients in a volume.  So imagine many small local magnetic field gradients. They can be from atoms, molecules, flows of Webers, flows of electrons or ions making Weber flows.  The unit of Magnetic Flux Quantum is just Planck’s constant in Joules/Hertz.  And that is divided by 2*ElectronCharge.  Two because they bind in dipole pairs. Superconductors with bound electron pairs are common. But there are also superconductors where protons bind to protons. And protons with antiprotons, electrons with positrons.

The CoData value for Φ0 = h/(2*e) is 2.067833848E-15 Weber.

But since a Weber is Volt/Hertz. Φ0 =2.067833848 ElectronVolt/PetaHertz

An electromagnetic wavelength of 1 PetaHertz will have an energy of 2.067833848 ElectronVolts.

The reason I belabor this is because it is easier to remember what it possible when you know that a Weber is the energy per Hertz counting cycles) of an electromagnetic wave. And the Magnetic Flux Quantum is just the multiplier. Essentially half the Planck’s constant in units of electron volts.

Richard K Collins

About: Richard K Collins

Director, The Internet Foundation Studying formation and optimized collaboration of global communities. Applying the Internet to solve global problems and build sustainable communities. Internet policies, standards and best practices.

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