NuDat 3.0 has a beautiful table of the isotopes, Unique Isotope Identifier, Nuclear polymers, magnetic nuclear bound states

Note on 9 Aug 2023: “Atomic Fuels” and “Extended Nuclear Materials”

At there are beta and electron capture chains that allow converting “nuclear” isotopes by using electromagnetic reactions. Electron density or positron density is easier to control than neutrons still. But with magnetic techniques, BOTH the old fission and new fusion are just part of “chemistry at atomic and nuclear energies” or “KeV MeV GeV chemistry”.

The sun might well use these mass chains and not only protons and alphas.

Still working toward “Atomic fuels” where the energy density is thousands or millions of times the energy density of chemical compound.

Still working toward “Extended nuclear materials” where chains, sheets, clusters, ropes and other materials with “atomic and nuclear magnetic bonds” are in the KeV MeV range and they are correspondingly stronger by factors of 100 or 100,000.

Richard Collins, The Internet Foundation

Nuclear Structure data and Nuclear Decay Data at

Donnie Mason,

I was just enjoying the graphs and data at NuDat 3.0.  I have been reading and using table of isotopes for over 50 years.  It is finally getting to where it is easy to use.

I was looking at Q beta-, Q beta+ and Q EC for all the isotopes and the CSVs have no common index, so they take effort to merge and compare.  I do not see “the whole table” which has all your properties with columns for A, Z, N, Variable Name, Unit, Value.

I wish you had integrated the magnetic moments, because that is the easiest way to look for new reactions.  The magnetic dipole energy is a good first approximation before full multipole models or looking for experiments.  I read the CRC Table of Isotopes and worked by hand countless times over the years.  When two protons combine, their Coulomb repulsion will be overcome at “nuclear” distances when the magnetic dipole 1/r^3 and 1/r^4 terms dominate over 1/r^2.

I wish I has been born now.  The neutron star modelers use full hydrodynamics and deal with proton pairs as proton superconductors.  I find it fascinating how one part of the Internet will be decades ahead of other parts. What is hard one place is super easy elsewhere.  Combining all the knowledge in a standard form that is easy to combine and use has been the hope of The Internet Foundation.  July 2023 was the 25th Anniversary of the Internet Foundation.

Thanks for a nice web page.  Maybe a nuclear reaction calculator and simulator page would be good.  I have not seen one.  For the last few months I have been testing large language model AIs. I am sure they can be trained to interact with students and people interested in and working on nuclear data.  I started following the fusion groups when I was at UT Austin in the early 1970s.  I always felt they should have kept going. But, even then, I listened and their electromagnetic people did not truly talk to the “nuclear chemists” (chemistry at nuclear energies.

Sorry to ramble. I am just writing things down.  Maybe you should add “like” and “$Thanks” to all your pages.  I recommend that for all Internet sites now, and also to link the pages to their teams for collaboration, sharing and to see what all is happening.  Sites moving to “open” are built that way, but a lot needs to be done to make the data efficiently shareable with the 5 billion humans using the Internet and all they have is Javascript, and NOT programmers, but very smart people from every country in the world. I grew up when “atomic energy” was a good thing.

The only suggestion I would make is to have a unique isotope identifier in the CSV.  Perhaps add A as well. To make it sort, 0000-0001 would be a neutron.  My only worry is I think it might need to need to allow for massive clusters now.  I call those “extended nuclear materials” or “nuclear polymers” or “magnetic bound states”.

On the Internet I have to allow for much experimentation with models and simulations now.  People can run simulations that explore many more alternatives quickly.  Setting standards and policies for Internet wide “open” web groups has been interesting. Sometimes I get to name areas that have grown, but the groups spring up separately and have not merged yet.

Richard Collins, The Internet Foundation


Richard K Collins

About: Richard K Collins

Director, The Internet Foundation Studying formation and optimized collaboration of global communities. Applying the Internet to solve global problems and build sustainable communities. Internet policies, standards and best practices.

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