Magnetron Sputtering, E-Beam Evaporation, Thermal Evaporation, Ion Beam Processing at https://angstromengineering.com/tech/magnetron-sputtering/
I was encouraging groups to tackle improving the chemical only propulsion used in things like SpaceX Starship and related earth to orbit systems. Their specific impulse is limited because they do not understand how to generate ion electron and plasma flows with high specific energy. Their velocities are km/second and they could be 100 times larger or more. Flow control through local surface plasma methods, or through magnetic flow control, or through simple modulation at relatively low frequencies to shape flows could help in these “rocket engines” but also a number of hypersonic applications where there is current interest. Also, with cheap vacuum in space, many prohibitively costly vacuum methods on earth might in a few years be accessible for processing. If the nuclear and atomic groups go as fast as they seem to be going, then abundant electrical, ionization and heat sources should be available — for “remote” applications where radiation is already high and part of the background for everyone involved.
SpecificImpulse_Seconds = Velocity/g0
Energy/Kg = (g0*SpecificImpulse_Seconds)^2
Energy/Kg = GravitationalEnergyDensity * SpecificImpulse_Seconds^2 * Constant
Richard Collins, The Internet Foundation
GravitationalEnergyDensity = g0^2/(8*pi*G)
Normalizing to the local gravitational potential, the efficiency should depend on the gravitational energy density. Matching to the local energy density gives most efficient propulsion. Check “slingshot” methods and they add deltaV in the deepest parts of the field for the longest time.
“metal deposition” (“nanostructured polymeric materials” OR “colloids” OR “nanocomposites” OR “plasmonic”)